Management is defined as the ability and practice to control, direct or plan something; “Act of guidance or management for a specific purpose”. In other words, it is an effort to plan, organize and mobilize people and resources for a given purpose. In the case of project management, we talk about the abilities and skills that make a project feasible and realistic. Project management is a tool for improving work that aims to bring about change.
A project is a series of activities to achieve a specific goal within a given budget and timetable. The result of the design should be a streamlining of activities. Each project has a solid beginning and end, a systematic plan, separate resources, determining goals, and several people work on it.
For a project to be successful, it is necessary to combine the following four factors:
- need or problem – correct assessment of the deficiency,
- project opportunity – the project must have space for implementation and must be supported by money, people and the target group,
- idea and vision – it should be clear to clarify what a significant and sustainable change the project will bring,
- Capability – Balancing capabilities, energy, resources, and organization is essential for a project.
Before you start the project, you will need to answer the following questions:
- defining intentions, goals, context and target group (In what context will the project take place ?, What changes will it bring ?, Why implement this project ?, What is the expected result ?, For whom is the project intended ?, What problems are at stake? ),
- project content (What is the topic and scope of the project ?, What approach is chosen (methodology) ?, What activities are included ?, What is needed for the project to continue?)
- where and when (Where will the project be implemented ?, How long will it last ?, When will it start/end?)
- funding (What are the total costs (planning/implementation and evaluation) ?, Where will the necessary funding come from?)
- partner (Will there be partners in the project ?, Who are the partners ?, What is their role ?, What are the coordination arrangements?)
- funds (Does the project meet the conditions for financial assistance ?, Can it use existing equipment ? conditions?)
- Communication (Internal communication: how is information disseminated in the project team ?, External communication: does the project need media coverage? (Why? How? Which aspects?)
- evaluation and follow-up (How and when should the project be evaluated? Which aspects ?, Why ?, What is the planned continuation?)
For projects, try to avoid the following critical factors:
- insufficient authority;
- insufficient participation and planning of the project team;
- inadequate involvement of the project team in solving problems;
- insufficient communication skills;
- insufficient technical skills;
- insufficient administrative skills;
- unrealistic project schedules;
- unclear project objectives.
Stages of Project Implementation
Each project has specific characteristics:
- Projects have a purpose: projects have clearly defined intentions and intend to achieve clearly defined results. Their goal is to solve a “problem” that requires analysis.
- Projects are limited in time and space: they have a beginning and an end and are implemented in a specific place and context.
- Projects are complex: projects require different planning and implementation skills and involve various partners and actors.
- The projects are unique: all projects stem from new ideas. They provide a specific answer to a need (problem) in a particular context. They are innovative.